Russian forces in Syria were reported to have used a mix of precision-guided munitions and unguided weapons. The October airstrikes were Russia’s first operational use of precision-guided munitions, whose development in Russia lagged behind other nations due to economic instability in the 1990s. The majority of weapons employed, however, were unguided. Russia also utilized cruise missiles launched from corvettes and a frigate. Russian artillery has also been used in the form of howitzers and multiple rocket launchers.
“Exploding suicide drones” have allegedly been deployed by Iran and Russia, according to some American media sources. Overall, the air campaign is estimated to cost between $2.3 and $4 million a day. Additionally, the 3M-14T cruise missiles that Russia has used by the dozen cost roughly $1.2 million per unit. Opposition activists and local witnesses alleged that Russia has used white phosphorus against targets in Raqqa and Idlib, causing civilian casualties with the weapons.