New missile test shows North Korea capable of hitting all of US

North Korea said it successfully tested a new intercontinental ballistic missile in a “breakthrough” that puts the U.S. mainland within range of its nuclear weapons whose warheads could withstand re-entry to the Earth’s atmosphere

 

 

 

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Donald Trump in Asia

The President has been applying pressure on his allies in the region to impose tougher sanctions on North Korea in the face of a series of missile tests conducted by Pyongyang. He will visit Japan, South Korea, China, Vietnam and the Philippines, attending two major summits, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum in Vietnam and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations conclave in the Philippines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kim Jong-un

Kim Jong-un[4] Korean pronunciation: [kimdʑʌŋɯn] (born 8 January 1983 or 1984)[5]—also romanised as Kim Jong-eun, Kim Jong Un or Kim Jung-eun[6]—is the supreme leader of North Korea, the son of Kim Jong-il (1941–2011) and the grandson of Kim Il-sung (1912–1994). He has held the titles of the First Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army, and also a presidium member of the Central Politburo of the Workers’ Party of Korea. He was officially declared the supreme leader following the state funeral for his father on 28 December 2011.[7] He is the third and youngest son of Kim Jong-il and his consort Ko Young-hee.[8] From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as heir apparent to the leadership of the nation, and following his father’s death, he was announced as the “Great Successor” by North Korean state television.[9] At Kim Jong-il’s memorial service, North Korean Chairman of the Supreme People’s Assembly Kim Yong-nam declared that “Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country’s supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il’s ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage”.[10] On 30 December 2011 the Politburo of the Workers’ Party of Korea formally appointed Kim as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army.[1] On 11 April 2012, the 4th Party Conference elected him to the newly created post of First Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea.
He was promoted to the rank of marshal of the DPRK in the Korean People’s Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the supreme commander of the armed forces.[11] He obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University and another at the Kim Il-sung Military University.[12][13] At 29–30 years of age, he is the world’s youngest head of state.
Early life
 
No official comprehensive biography on Kim Jong-un has yet been released. Therefore, the only known information on his early life comes from defectors and people who have claimed to witness him in countries like Switzerland. Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory since his brother Kim Jong-chul was attending school there around the same period. Nevertheless, there has been some consensus on information about his early life. North Korean authorities have stated that his birthdate is 8 January 1982, but outside speculation by analysts and observers believe his birthdate to be around 1983 or early 1984.[5]
 
According to reports first published in Japanese newspapers, he went to school in Switzerland near Bern. First reports claimed he attended the private English-language “International School” in Gümligen near Bern under the name “Chol-pak” or “Pak-chol” from 1993 until 1998.[14][15][16] He was described as shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates and was a basketball fan.[17] He was chaperoned by an older student who was thought to be his bodyguard.[18]
 
Later it was reported that Kim Jong-un attended the public school “Liebefeld Steinhölzli” in Köniz near Bern under the name “Pak-un” or “Un-pak” from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the Embassy of North Korea. Authorities of Köniz confirmed that a student from North Korea, registered as the son of a member of the Embassy attended the school from August 1998 till fall 2000, but were unable to give details about his identity. Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th and part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in fall 2000. He was described as a well-integrated and ambitious student who liked to play basketball.[19] However, his grades and attendance rating are reported to have been poor.[20][21] The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Tcheul, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor.[22] One of Pak-un’s classmates told reporters that he had told him that he was the son of the leader of North Korea.[23][24] According to some reports, Jong-un was described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls, indifferent to political issues but distinguished himself in sports, and had a fascination with the American National Basketball Association and Michael Jordan. One friend claimed that he had been shown pictures of Pak-un with Kobe Bryant and Toni Kukoč taken at an unknown location.[25]
 
In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.[26]
The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the University of Lyon, France, after comparing the picture of the boy Pak-un, taken at the school “Liebefeld Steinhölzli” in 1999 with a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 came to the conclusion that the two faces show a conformity of 95 percent. The head of the institute, Raoul Perrot, a forensic anthropologist, considers it most likely that the two pictures show the same person.[27][28]
It is believed that the student at the Gümligen “International School” was not Kim Jong-un but his elder brother Kim Jong-chol. It is not known whether the student known as Pak-un in “Liebefeld Steinhölzli” lived in Switzerland prior to 1998.[29] All the children of Kim Jong-il are said to have lived in Switzerland, as well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time. The Kim clan is also said to organise family meetings in Switzerland at Lake Geneva and Interlaken.[22]
 
Most analysts agree that Kim Jong-un attended Kim Il-sung University, a leading officer-training school in Pyongyang from 2002 to 2007.[30]
For many years, only one confirmed photograph of him was known outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven.[31] Occasional other supposed images of him surfaced but were often disputed.[32][33][34][35] It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts and publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim, taken when he was attending school in Switzerland.[36][37] The first official image of him as an adult was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010, at the end of the party conference that effectively anointed him, in which he is seated in the front row, two places from his father. This was followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.[38]

Succession

Pre-2010 Party Conference speculation

His eldest half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, had been the favourite to succeed, but reportedly fell out of favour after 2001, when he was caught attempting to enter Japan on a fake passport to visit Tokyo Disneyland.[39]
Kim Jong-il’s former personal chef, Kenji Fujimoto, revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un, with whom he shared a good relationship,[40] stating that he was favoured to be his father’s successor. Fujimoto also claimed that Jong-un was favored by his father over his elder brother, Kim Jong-chul, reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character, while Jong-un is “exactly like his father”.[41] Furthermore Fujimoto stated that “If power is to be handed over then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts, is a big drinker and never admits defeat.” Also according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes and loves Johnnie Walker whiskey and has a Mercedes-Benz 600 Sedan.[42]
 
When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un questioned his lavish lifestyle and asked, “We are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding Jet Skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?”[41] On 15 January 2009 the South Korean news agency, Yonhap, reported that Kim Jong-il appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.[39][43]
On 8 March 2009, the BBC reported rumors that Kim Jong-un appeared on the ballot for elections to the Supreme People’s Assembly, the rubber stamp parliament of North Korea.[44] Subsequent reports indicate that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers,[45] however he was later elevated to a mid-level position in the National Defense Commission, which is a branch of the North Korean military.[46] Reports have also suggested that he is a diabetic and suffers from hypertension.[47][48]
 
From 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il as the head of the Korean Workers’ Party and de facto leader of North Korea.[49] He has been named “Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji” (영명한 동지), which loosely translates to “Brilliant Comrade”.[50] His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son.[48] There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea have been encouraged to sing a newly composed “song of praise” to Kim Jong-un, in a similar fashion to that of praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung.[51] Later in June, Kim was reported to have visited China secretly to “present himself” to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test.[52] The Chinese Foreign Ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.[53][54]
 
North Korea was later reported to have backed the succession plan, after Kim Jong-il suspended a propaganda campaign to promote his youngest son.[55] His birthday has since become a national holiday, celebrated on 8 January, according to a report by a South Korean website.[56] He was expected to be named on 28 September 2010 as successor to his father as leader of North Korea.[57][58][59]
Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter visited China in early September 2010, and discussed the issue of North Korean leadership succession with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao. According to Carter, Kim Jong-il had said to Wen that Kim Jong-un’s prospective promotion to paramount leader of North Korea was “a false rumor from the West”.[60]

Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission

Kim Jong-un was made a daejang, the equivalent of general in the United States,[61] on 27 September 2010, a day ahead of a rare Workers’ Party of Korea conference in Pyongyang, the first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name and despite his having no previous military experience.[62][63][64] Despite the promotion, no further details, including verifiable portraits of Kim, were released.[65] On 28 September 2010 he was named vice chairman of the Central Military Commission and appointed to the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party, in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.[66]
 
On 10 October 2010, alongside his father, Kim Jong-un attended the ruling Workers’ Party’s 65th anniversary celebration. This was seen as fully confirming his position as the next leader of the Workers’ Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event, further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un’s presence.[67] In January 2011, the regime began purging around 200 protégés of both Jong-un’s uncle-in-law Jang Sung-taek and O Kuk-ryol, the vice chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, by either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un.[68] In the following months, Kim Jong-un was given more and more prominence as he accompanied Kim Jong-il during several “guidance tours” and received gifts from foreign delegations and personages, an honour traditionally awarded only to the living supreme leader. He was also listed second only to Kim Jong-il himself in the funeral committee for Jo Myong-rok.[citation needed]

Ruler of North Korea

On 17 December 2011, Kim Jong-il died. Despite the elder Kim’s plans, it was not immediately clear after his death whether Jong-un would in fact take full power, and what his exact role in a new government would be.[69] Some analysts had predicted that when Kim Jong-il died, Jang Sung-taek would act as regent, as Jong-un was too inexperienced to immediately lead the country.[70] On 25 December 2011, North Korean television showed Jang Sung-taek in the uniform of a general in a sign of his growing sway after the death of Kim Jong-il. A Seoul official familiar with North Korea affairs said it was the first time Jang has been shown on state television in a military uniform. His appearance suggests that Jang has secured a key role in the North’s powerful military, which has pledged its allegiance to Kim Jong-un.[71]
 
The cult of personality around Kim Jong-un has been stepped up following his father’s death. He was hailed as the “great successor to the revolutionary cause of Juche“, “outstanding leader of the party, army and people”,[72] “respected comrade who is identical to Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il”,[73] and chairman of the Kim Jong-il funeral committee. The Korean Central News Agency described Kim Jong-un as “a great person born of heaven”, a propaganda term only his father and grandfather had enjoyed,[74] while the ruling Workers’ Party said in an editorial: “We vow with bleeding tears to call Kim Jong-un our supreme commander, our leader.”[75]
He was publicly declared Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army on 24 December 2011[76] and formally appointed to the position on 30 December when the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party “courteously proclaimed that the dear respected Kim Jong Un, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the WPK, assumed the supreme commandership of the Korean People’s Army”.[1]
 
On 26 December 2011, the leading North Korean newspaper Rodong Sinmun announced that Kim Jong-un has been acting as chairman of the Central Military Commission,[77] and supreme leader of the country, following his father’s demise.[78]
On 9 January 2012, a large rally was held by armed forces in front of Kumsusan Memorial Palace to honor Kim Jong-un and demonstrate loyalty.[79]
On 27 March 2012, Kim was elected to the Fourth Conference of the Workers’ Party of Korea, that elected him first secretary, a newly made position, on 11 April. This position replaced the post of general secretary, which was awarded “eternally” to Kim Jong-il. At the conference, Kim Jong-un also took his father’s seats as Politburo Presidium member and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.[80] In a speech made prior to the Conference, Kim Jong-un declared that “Imbuing the whole society with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is the highest programme of our Party”.
On 13 April 2012, the 5th Session of the 12th Supreme People’s Assembly appointed him First Chairman of the National Defence Commission.
 
On 15 April 2012, during a military parade to commemorate Kim Il-sung’s centenary, he made his first public speech.[81] That speech became the basis of “Onwards Toward the Final Victory“, a repetitively aired propaganda hymn dedicated to him.[82]
In July 2012, Kim Jong-un was promoted to wonsu, the highest active rank in the military. The decision was jointly issued on by the Central Committee and the Central Military Commission of the Workers’ Party of Korea, the National Defence Commission and the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly, Korean Central News Agency subsequently announced. By this promotion he is one of only two wonsu holders now alive in North Korea. The other is Lee Ul Sol, who received the rank in 1995. The only higher rank is dae wonsu (roughly translated as Grand Marshal or Generalissimo) which was held by Kim’s grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and which was awarded posthumously to his father, Kim Jong-il, in February 2012.[11][83] The promotion confirmed Kim’s role as top leader of the North Korean military and came days after the replacement of Chief of General Staff Ri Yong-ho by Hyon Yong-chol.
 
During a 26 July 2012 performance marking the 59th anniversary of the armistice of the Korean War, security around Kim has reportedly increased dramatically because Kim “is extremely nervous about the possibility of an emergency developing inside North Korea” caused by “mounting opposition to his efforts to rein in the military.”[84]
In August 2012, Kim Jong-un announced economics reforms similar to the People’s Republic of China.[85] Kim began to be mentioned by the North Korean state media as “Supreme Leader” (chego ryongdoja) at this time.
 
In November 2012, satellite photos revealed a half kilometer long propaganda message carved into a hillside in Ryanggang Province, reading, “Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!”. The message, located next to an artificial lake built in 2007 to serve a hydroelectric station, is made of Korean letters measuring 15 by 20 meters, and is located approximately 9 kilometers south of Hyesan near the border with the People’s Republic of China.[86]
Kim Jong-il’s personal chef Kenji Fujimoto stated “Stores in Pyongyang were brimming with products and people in the streets looked cheerful, North Korea has changed a lot since Kim Jong-un assumed power. All of this is because of leader Kim Jong-un.”[87]
 
Officially, Kim Jong-un is part of a triumvirate heading the executive branch of the North Korean government along with Premier Pak Pong-ju and parliament chairman Kim Yong-nam (no relation). Each nominally holds powers equivalent to a third of a president’s powers in most other presidential systems. Kim Jong-un commands the armed forces, Pak Pong-ju heads the government and Kim Yong-nam handles foreign relations. Nevertheless, it is generally understood that Kim Jong-un, like his father before him, exercises absolute control over the government and the country.
Ri Yong-ho, Kim Yong-chun, U Dong-chuk, and Kim Jong-gak were handpicked to groom the young leader and were close confidants of Kim Jong-il. They have either been demoted or disappeared. One South Korean government official said Kim Jong-un is trying to “erase all traces of his father’s rule” 11 months after stepping into power and “replacing top brass with officers who are loyal to him alone.”[88]
 
On 30 November 2012, Kim met with Li Jianguo, who “briefed Kim on the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China,” according to the KCNA news agency.[89] A letter from Xi Jinping was hand-delivered during the discussion.[89]
In 2013 Kim re-established his grandfather’s style when he made his first New Year’s address, which was a break from the approach of his father, Kim Jong-il who never made televised addresses during his 17 years in power.[90] In lieu of delivering a speech, Kim Jong-il contributed to and approved a New Year’s Day editorial, jointly published by Rodong Sinmun (the daily newspaper of the Korean Workers’ Party), Joson Imnigun (the newspaper of the Korean People’s Army), and Chongnyon Jonwi (the newspaper of the Kim Il-sung Socialist Youth League).[91] At the extraordinary meeting with his top defence and security officials on 26 January 2013 Kim issued orders on preparations for a new nuclear test and introduced martial law in North Korea effective from 29 January.[92][93]
On 7 March 2013, North Korea threatened the United States with a ‘pre-emptive nuclear attack’,[94] and Kim Jong-Un issued a detailed threat to “wipe out” Baengnyeong Island, the scene of previous naval clashes.[95]
At a plenary meeting of the WPK Central Committee held on 31 March 2013 in the wake of war threats with South Korea, Kim Jong-un announced that North Korea will adopt “a new strategic line on carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously”[96]

Personality

Kenji Fujimoto, a Japanese chef who used to work as Kim Jong-il’s personal cook, described Kim Jong-un as “a chip off the old block, a spitting image of his father in terms of face, body shape and personality”.[97]
The Washington Post reported in 2009 that Kim Jong-un’s school friends recalled he “spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of Chicago Bulls superstar Michael Jordan.”[98] He was obsessed with basketball and computer games,[99][100] and was once caught with a bondage pornographic magazine in his school bag.[101] On 26 February 2013, Kim Jong-un met ex-NBA star Dennis Rodman,[102] leading many reporters to speculate that Rodman was the first American that Kim had met.[103] He is a fan of Eric Clapton.[104]
In a 2012 news story, Business Insider reported, “Signs of a rise in luxury goods have been creeping out of North Korea since Kim Jong-un took over as last year. Just recently, Kim’s wife Ri Sol-Ju was photographed holding what appeared to be an expensive Dior handbag, worth almost $1,594 – an average year’s salary in North Korea.”[105] According to diplomatic sources, “Kim Jong-un likes to drink and party all night like his father and ordered the [imported sauna] equipment to help him beat hangovers and fatigue.”[106]
In 2013, it was rumored that Kim Jong-un received plastic surgery in order to modify his facial appearance.[107]

Assassination attempt

On 14 March 2013, reports surfaced from South Korean intelligence sources that Kim Jong-un had been the target of an assassination attempt.[108] The attempt was made by “disgruntled people inside the North” in response to the demotion of Reconnaissance General Bureau director Kim Yong-chol in November 2012. According to the unnamed intelligence source the attempt was made in downtown Pyongyang and resulted in a firefight. The demotion was due to an internal power struggle between government factions.[109]
There had also been a rumor about an assassination attempt in 2012 while Kim Jong-un was visiting China. United States officials claimed the rumors had no validity.[110]
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U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry met China’s top leaders

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry met China’s top leaders on Saturday in a bid to persuade them to exert pressure on North Korea to scale back its belligerent rhetoric and, eventually, return to nuclear talks.

Travelling to Beijing for the first time as secretary of state, Kerry made no secret of his desire to see China take a more activist stance towards North Korea, which in recent weeks has threatened nuclear war against the United States and South Korea.

As the North’s main trading partner, financial backer and the closest thing it has to a diplomatic ally, China has a unique ability to use its leverage against the impoverished, isolated state, Kerry said in the South Korean capital, Seoul, on Friday before leaving for Beijing.

“Mr. President, this is obviously a critical time with some very challenging issues – issues on the Korean peninsula, the challenge of Iran and nuclear weapons, Syria and the Middle East, and economies around the world that are in need of a boost,” Kerry told Chinese President Xi Jinping at the Great Hall of the People.See More

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North Korea History and Military Facts

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRKChosŏn’gŭl조선민주주의인민공화국Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk), commonly called North Korea (About this sound listen), is a country in East Asia, in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital is Pyongyang, the country’s largest city by both land area and population. The Amnok River and the Tumen River form the international border between North Korea and thePeople’s Republic of China. A small section of the Tumen River also lies along the border between North Korea and the Russian Federation, technically following the river’s thalweg.[7] The Korean Demilitarized Zone formSouth Korea. The legitimacy of this border is not accepted by either side, as both states claim to be the legitimate government of the entire country.

s the boundary between North Korea and

The Korean peninsula was governed by the Korean Empire from the late 19th century to the early 20th century, until it was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Japanese rule ceased. The Korean peninsula was divided into two occupied zones in 1945, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States. A United Nations–supervised election held in 1948 led to the creation of separate Korean governments for the two occupation zones: the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. The conflicting claims of sovereignty led to the Korean War in 1950. An armistice in 1953 committed both to a cease-fire, but the two countries remain officially at war because a formal peace treaty was never signed.[8] Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991.[9]
North Korea political parties includes Workers’ Party of KoreaKorean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party (also there are some independent deputies). The three political parties participate in the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland led by the Workers’ Party of Korea.[10] The government follows the Juche ideology of self-reliance, initiated by the country’s first PresidentKim Il-sung. After his death, Kim Il-sung was declared the country’s Eternal PresidentJuche became the official state ideology, replacing Marxism–Leninism, when the country adopted a new constitution in 1972.[11][12] In 2009, references to Communism (Chosŏn’gŭl공산주의) were removed from the country’sconstitution.[13]
Education in North Korea is universal and free of charge (it is one of the most literate countries in the world, with an average literacy rate of 99%).[14] The country has a national medical service and health insurance system which are offered for free.[14] Housing and food rations traditionally have been heavily subsidized.[14] The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms.[14]
North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il adopted Songun, or “military-first” policy in order to strengthen the country and its government.[15] North Korea is the world’s most militarized country, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the 4th largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India.[16] It is a nuclear-weapons state and has an active space program.[17][18][19]
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, North Korea lost a major trading partner and strategic ally. Combined with a series of natural disasters, this led to the North Korean famine, which lasted from 1994 to 1998 and killed an estimated 240,000 to 1,000,000 people.[20][21]As a result of its isolation it is sometimes known as the “Hermit kingdom“,[22] a name once given to its predecessor, the Korean Empire. Although North Korea is officially a socialist republic[23] and elections are held, it has been described by the mass media as a totalitarian and Stalinistdictatorship[32] with an elaborate cult of personality around the Kim family. Also, the Economist Intelligence Unit, a private business based in the United Kingdom, ranked it as the lowest country in the Democracy Index. Finally, Amnesty International[33][34] and Human Rights Watch[35][36]report of severe restrictions on human rights but the government rejects these claims.[37][38][39]

Military

The Ministry of the People’s Armed Forces maintains the Korean People’s Army (KPA), which serves as the military force of the country. The Korean People’s Army (KPA) is the name for the collective armed personnel of the North Korean military. It has five branches: Ground ForceNaval ForceAir ForceSpecial Operations Force, and Rocket Force. According to the U.S. Department of State, North Korea has the fourth-largest army in the world, at an estimated 1.21 million armed personnel, with about 20% of men aged 17–54 in the regular armed forces.[16] North Korea has the highest percentage of military personnel per capita of any nation in the world, with approximately one enlisted soldier for every 25 citizens.[17][164] North Korea also has a Defense Industry that is responsible for engineering military equipment. In 1994, North Korea received 10Golf II Class Submarines from Russia.[165]  
Military strategy is designed for insertion of agents and sabotage behind enemy lines in wartime,[16] with much of the KPA’s forces deployed along the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone. The Korean People’s Army operates a very large amount of equipment, including 4,060 tanks, 2,500APCs, 17,900 artillery pieces, 11,000 air defense guns and some 10,000 MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles[166] in the Ground force; at least 915 vessels in the Navy and 1,748 aircraft in the Air Force,[167] of which 478 are fighters and 180 are bombers.[168]
North Korea also has the largest special forces in the world, as well as the largest submarine fleet.[169] The equipment is a mixture of World War II vintage vehicles and small arms, widely proliferated Cold War technology, and more modern Soviet or locally produced weapons. In line with itsasymmetric warfare strategy, North Korea employs a wide range of unconventional techniques and equipment, such as GPS jammers,[170] stealthpaint,[171] midget submarines and human torpedoes,[172] a vast array of chemical and biological weapons,[173] and blinding laser weapons.[174]According to official North Korean media, military expenditures for 2010 amount to 15.8% of the state budget.[175]
North Korea has active nuclear and ballistic missile weapons programs and has been subject to United Nations Security Council resolutions 1695of July 2006, 1718 of October 2006, and 1874 of June 2009, for carrying out both missile and nuclear tests. North Korea probably has fissile material for up to nine nuclear weapons,[176] and has the capability to deploy nuclear warheads on intermediate-range ballistic missiles.[177] The launch of a North Korean satellite in December 2012 was seen as a weapons development step by South Korea and its allies[178] and condemned by the UN Security Council.[179]

Weapons Manufacturing

In North Korea, weapons are manufactured in roughly 180 underground defense industry plants in Jagang-do. The plants are responsible for producing; 200,000 Kalashnikov rifles annually, 3,000 heavy guns, 200 battle tanks, 400 armored cars and amphibious crafts in addition to several other weapons.[180]

Nuclear capabilities

In the 1990s, North Korea sold medium-sized nuclear capable missiles to Pakistan in a deal facilitated by China.[181] In 2005, North Korea admitted to having nuclear weapons but vowed to close their nuclear programs.[182][183] The promise of a reduction in nuclear programs has also been reinforced at various Inter-Korean Summit meetings between North and South Korea since the year 2000. However, nuclear plants in North Korea have caused international concern since the 1950s as they are capable of assisting in the development of nuclear arms. International issues involving North Korea’s refusal to discontinue nuclear projects have prevented Russia based Gazprom from developing a $2.5 billion pipeline to South Korea through Pyongyang. The revenue generated from Gazprom is intended to provide North Korea with $100 million per year in transit fees.[184][185]
The Japan Meteorological Agency has been able to use technological advances in seismology to detect various nuclear weapons tests.[186]
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The Korean People’s Army

A North Korean soldier in 2005.
 
The Korean People’s Army (KPA) (Chosŏn’gŭl: 조선인민군; Chosŏn inmin’gun), also known as the People’s Army (Chosŏn’gŭl: 인민군; Inmin Gun), are the military forces of North Korea. Kim Jong-un is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and Chairman of the National Defence Commission. The KPA consists of five branches, Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, and the Special Operation Force. Also, the Worker-Peasant Red Guards come under control of the KPA.
 
In 1971, Kim Il-sung directed that “Military Foundation Day” be changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of his anti-Japanese guerrilla army in 1932, to recognize the supposedly indigenous Korean origins of the KPA and obscure its Soviet origin.[1] An active arms industry had been developed to produce long-range missiles such as the Nodong-1.[6]
The KPA faces its primary adversaries, the Military of South Korea and United States Forces Korea, across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953. As of 2013, with 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel, it is the largest military organization on earth.[7]
 
The Korean People’s Army history began with the Korean Volunteer Army (KVA), which was formed in Yenan, China, in 1939. The two individuals responsible for the army were Kim Tu-bong and Mu Chong. At the same time, a school was established near Yenan for training military and political leaders for a future independent Korea. By 1945, the KVA had grown to approximately 1,000 men, mostly Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms and ammunition. After the defeat of the Japanese, the KVA accompanied the Chinese communist forces into Manchuria, intending to gain recruits from the Korean population of Manchuria and then enter Korea. By September 1945, the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposal.
 
Just after World War II and during the Soviet Union’s occupation of the part of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on October 12, 1945. Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, and the force was created on October 21, 1945.
 
The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, and the formation of the unit was announced on January 11, 1946. That unit was activated on August 15 of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces.
The first political-military school in the DPRK, the Pyongyang Military Academy (became No. 2 KPA Officers School in January 1949), headed by Kim Chaek, an ally of Kim Il-sung, was founded in October 1945 under Soviet guidance to train people’s guards, or public security units. In 1946, graduates of the school entered regular police and public security/constabulary units. These lightly armed security forces included followers of Kim Il-sung and returned veterans from the People’s Republic of China, and the Central Constabulary Academy (which became the KPA Military Academy in December 1948) soon followed for education of political and military officers for the new armed forces.
 
After the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean People’s Army General Headquarters. The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, badges, and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters.
The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of People’s Defense, was created as part of the Interim People’s Committee on February 4, 1948. The formal creation of the Korean People’s Army was announced on four days later on February 8, the day after the Fourth Session of the People’s Assembly agreed to separate the roles of the military and those of the police,[8] seven months before the government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was proclaimed on September 9, 1948. In addition, the Ministry of State for the People’s Armed Forces was established, which controlled a central guard battalion, two divisions, and an independent mixed and combined arms brigade
 
The Korean People’s Army Ground Force (KPAGF) is the main branch of the Korean People’s Army responsible for land-based military operations. It is the de facto army of North Korea. The size, organization, disposition, and combat capabilities of the Ground Force give Pyongyang military options both for offensive operations to reunify the peninsula and for credible defensive operations against any perceived threat from South Korea.

  People’s Navy

The North Korean navy is organized into two fleets which are not able to support each other. The East Fleet is headquartered at T’oejo-dong and the West Fleet at Nampho. A number of training, shipbuilding and maintenance units and a naval air wing report directly to Naval Command Headquarters at Pyongyang.[27] The majority of the navy’s ships are assigned to the East Fleet. Due to the short range of most ships, the two fleets are not known to have ever conducted joint operations or shared vessels.[28]

  People’s Air Force and Defence

The KPAF is also responsible for North Korea’s air defence forces through the use of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air (SAM) missiles. While much of the equipment is outdated, the high saturation of multilayered, overlapping, mutually supporting air defence sites provides a formidable challenge to enemy air attacks.[29]

  People’s Strategic Rocket Forces

The Korean People’s Strategic Rocket Forces is a major division of the KPA that controls the DPRK’s nuclear and conventional strategic missiles. It is mainly equipped with surface-to-surface missiles of Soviet and Chinese design, as well as locally developed long-range missiles.

  Worker-Peasant Red Guard Militia

The Red Guards (1997 complement 3.5 million) is the DPRK equivalent of the ROTC/Home Guard/National Guard. It is regarded as a part of the Ministry of National Defence and it’s flag enjoys the same status as that of the other services. With units organized from University level down to the village level, it provides the Korean People’s Armed Forces with a ready-available pool of trained reinforcements.
 
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